by Jeff Hunter, Sr. Database Administrator
This document contains an overview of the principal RPM commands for installing, un-installing, upgrading, querying, listing, and checking RPM packages on your Red Hat Linux system.
|Purpose||Description / Example|
|Install an RPM Package||
RPM packages have file naming conventions like foo-2.0-4.i386.rpm, which include the package name (foo), version (2.0), release (4), and architecture (i386). Also notice that RPM understands FTP and HTTP protocols for installing and querying remote RPM files.
rpm -ivh foo-2.0-4.i386.rpm rpm -i ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/RPMS/foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm rpm -i http://oss.oracle.com/projects/firewire/dist/files/kernel-2.4.20-18.10.1.i686.rpm
|Un-install an RPM Package||
To un-install an RPM package, we use the package name foo, not the name of the original package file foo-2.0-4.i386.rpm above.
rpm -e foo
|Upgrade an RPM Package||
To upgrade an RPM package, RPM automatically un-installs the old version of the foo package and installs the new package. It is safe to always use rpm -Uvh to install and upgrade packages, since it works fine even when there are no previous versions of the package installed! Also notice that RPM understands FTP and HTTP protocols for upgrading from remote RPM files.
rpm -Uvh foo-1.0-2.i386.rpm rpm -Uvh ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/RPMS/foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm rpm -Uvh http://oss.oracle.com/projects/firewire/dist/files/kernel-2.4.20-18.10.1.i686.rpm
|Query all Installed Packages||
Use RPM to print the names of all installed packages installed on your Linux system.
|Query an RPM Package||
Querying an RPM package will print the package name, version, and release number of the package foo only if it is installed. Use this command to verify that a package is or is not installed on your Linux system.
rpm -q foo
|Display Package Information||
RPM can display package information including the package name, version, and description of the installed program. Use this command to get detailed information about the installed package.
rpm -qi foo
|List Files in Installed Package||
The following command will list all of files in an installed RPM package. It works only when the package is already installed on your Linux system.
rpm -ql foo
|Which package owns a file?||
Use the following command to determine which installed package a particular file belongs to.
rpm -qf /usr/bin/mysqlFor example:
# rpm -qf /usr/bin/mysql mysql-3.23.52-3
|List Files in RPM File||
Use RPM to query a (possibly) un-installed RPM file with the use of the the "-p" option. You can use the "-p" option to operate on an RPM file without actually installing anything. This command lists all files in an RPM file you have in the current directory. Also note that RPM can query remote files through the FTP and HTTP protocols.
rpm -qpl kernel-2.4.20-18.10.1.i686.rpm rpm -qpl ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/RPMS/foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm rpm -qpl http://oss.oracle.com/projects/firewire/dist/files/kernel-2.4.20-18.10.1.i686.rpm
|Verify an Installed Package||
Use RPM to list all files that do NOT pass the verify tests (done on size, MD5 signature, etc).
rpm --verify mysql
Where a file does NOT pass, the output is listed using the following codes that signify what failed:
S File size M Mode (includes permissions and file type) 5 MD5 sum L Symlink D Device U User G Group T Mtime
Take for example the following:
# rpm --verify mysql S.5....T c /etc/my.cnf
This example indicates that file /etc/my.cnf failed on:
File size MD5 Sum Modified Time
However, the "c" tells us this is a configuration file so that explains the changes. It should still be looked at to determine what the changes were.
|Check an RPM Signature Package||
RPM can be used to check the PGP signature of specified packages to ensure its integrity and origin. Always use this command first before installing a new RPM package on your system. Also, GnuPG or Pgp software must be already installed on your system before you can use this command.
rpm --checksig foo
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Last modified on
Wednesday, 28-Dec-2011 14:10:13 EST
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