DBA Tips Archive for Oracle

  


Oracle Programming with Perl DBI / DBD

by Jeff Hunter, Sr. Database Administrator


Contents

  1. Overview
  2. Download DBI / DBD
  3. Install DBI / DBD
  4. Sample Perl DBI Script for Oracle
  5. Troubleshooting
  6. About the Author



Overview

The Perl Database Intertface (DBI) is a database access Application Programming Interface (API) for the Perl Language. The Perl DBI API specification defines a set of functions, variables and conventions that provide a consistent database interface independant of the actual database being used. This month, I will provide a short article on how to install DBI and DBD on the UNIX platform. Also included in this article is a sample Perl script that demonstrates the use of DBI.



Download DBI / DBD

To start, you need to download a copy of DBI and Oracle DBD. (Keep in mind that you only need to download the first two files: DBI and Oracle DBD. The others are links to useful DBI resources.)

Program Download Version Release Date
DBI-1.48.tar.gz Download 1.48 14-Mar-2005
DBD-Oracle-1.16.tar.gz Download 1.16 22-Oct-2004
DBI - Database independent interface for Perl View N/A N/A
A Short Guide to DBI View N/A N/A
dbi.perl.org View N/A N/A
Perl DBI Examples View N/A N/A
Database Interface Modules for Perl5 View N/A N/A
Programming the Perl DBI View N/A N/A
CPAN.org (list all modules) View N/A N/A



Install DBI / DBD

Ensure the correct version of Perl is installed
You should be using version 5.004 or higher. To find out the version of Perl you have on your machine, use the following:
% perl -version

This is perl, version 5.004_04 built for sun4-solaris

Copyright 1987-1997, Larry Wall

Perl may be copied only under the terms of either the Artistic 
License or the GNU General Public License, which may be found 
in the Perl 5.0 source kit.

  Solaris 8 now comes with perl5 installed. Programs like CGI.pm, DBI/DBD, etc. will not install with the Solaris CC compiler. The reason for this is that the CC compiler on solaris 8 is not a full version.

The full version costs money and is considered an add on product available from Sun. Since the installed perl was compilied with CC you can not compile the other perl libraries with gcc. Attempting to do so, (i.e. installing DBI/DBD), it will complain that your version of cc does not have the:

"optional language software installed"
The default version of perl that comes with Solaris 8 is installed in /usr/bin. To verify the version of CC that was used to compile perl, use the following:
% perl -V:cc
First, do not uninstall the Perl interpreter bundled with Solaris (I believe it is perl 5.003_05). This may break things. My advice is to install both gcc and a newer version of Perl from Sunfreeware.com. First install gcc and then Perl. The new perl executable will be located in /usr/local/bin. Here is an example of how to install both packages after downloading:
# pkgadd -d gcc-3.2-sol8-sparc-local

# pkgadd -d perl-5.8.0-sol8-sparc-local
After installing both packages, make sure that gcc and the new version of perl are in your PATH.


Install DBI

  You must install DBI BEFORE installing Oracle DBD !!!!

Simply download, gunzip, and untar the DBI module into a temporary directory and make it. Below is a quick guide to installing DBI. Although I am performing all of the following tasks as the root user account, the only task that truly requires root is "make install".

  • Login as root
    su -

  • Create a temporary directory
    mkdir tempDBI
    cd tempDBI

  • gunzip/untar the DBI module
    gunzip DBI-1.48.tar.gz
    tar -xvf DBI-1.48.tar

  • Change to the created directory
    cd DBI-1.48

  • Make/Install DBI
    perl Makefile.PL
    make
    make install

  • Remove temporary DBI directory and files
    cd ../..
    rm -rf tempDBI


Install DBD:Oracle

  You must install DBI BEFORE installing Oracle DBD !!!!

Simply download, gunzip, and untar the DBD module into a temporary directory and make it. Below is a quick guide to installing DBD:

  • Login as root
    su -

  • Create a temporary directory
    mkdir tempDBD
    cd tempDBD

  • gunzip/untar the DBD module
    gunzip DBD-Oracle-1.16.tar.gz
    tar -xvf DBD-Oracle-1.16.tar

  • Change to the created directory
    cd DBD-Oracle-1.16

  • Make/Install DBD
    perl Makefile.PL
    make
    make install

  • Remove temporary DBD directory and files
    cd ../..
    rm -rf tempDBD



Sample Perl DBI Script for Oracle

   Sample Oracle DBI Script. testDBDOracle.pl
#!/usr/local/bin/perl

# +----------------------------------------------------------------+
# | FILE         : testDBDOracle.pl                                |
# | AUTHOR       : Jeff Hunter, Senior Database Administrator      |
# | PURPOSE      : This script will test the DBI/DBD installation. |
# | OUTPUT FILES : NONE                                            |
# +----------------------------------------------------------------+

require "ctime.pl";
require "flush.pl";

use DBI;

&declareGlobalVariables;

&printHeader;

$dbh = &getOracleLogin("$ORACLE_SID", "$ORACLE_USERID", "$ORACLE_PASSWORD");
$dbh->{LongReadLen} = 64000;

&performTest;

&logoffOracle($dbh);

&printFooter;

exit;

# +--------------+
# | SUB ROUTINES |
# +--------------+
sub declareGlobalVariables {

  $ORACLE_SID              = "ORCL";
  $ORACLE_USERID           = "system";
  $ORACLE_PASSWORD         = "manager";

  $ENV{'ORACLE_SID'}       = "$ORACLE_SID";
  $ENV{'ORACLE_HOME'}      = "/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1";

}

sub printHeader {

  print "\n";
  print "Running testDBDOracle.pl...\n";
  print "\n";

}

sub printFooter {

  print "Ending testDBDOracle.pl...\n";
  print "\n";

}

sub getOracleLogin {

  local ($oracle_sid, $username, $password) = @_;
  local ($temp_dbh);
  local($tempID, $tempPassword, $tempKey);

  print "  (*) Attempting Oracle Login ...\n";


  unless ( $temp_dbh = DBI->connect(  "DBI:Oracle:$oracle_sid"
                                    , "$username"
                                    , $password
                                    , {AutoCommit => 0}) ) {
    &programError(   "Oracle Login Failed as $username"
                   , ""
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    exit;
  }

  print "      OK\n\n";

  return $temp_dbh;

}

sub logoffOracle {

  ($dbh) = @_;

  print "  (*) Attempting Oracle Logoff ...\n";

  unless ($dbh->disconnect) {

    # &programError(   "Could not disconnect from Oracle"
    #                , ""
    #                , "$DBI::errstr"
    #                , "dba-mail"
    #                , "dba-pager");
    # exit;

    # Commented out this section because of
    # the errors we get: ORA-02050
    # (some remote DBs may be in doubt
    # (DBD: disconnect error)

    1;
  }

  print "      OK\n\n";

}

sub performTest {

  local ($rows1, $rows2, $rows3, $rows4);
  local ($test_dbi_intr_no, $test_dbi_name);
  local ($user, $sysdate);

  # +-----------------------+
  # | CREATE TABLE test_dbi |
  # +-----------------------+

  print "  (*) Creating table TEST_DBI ...\n";

  $sql_statement = "
    CREATE TABLE test_dbi (
        test_dbi_intr_no    NUMBER(15)
      , test_dbi_name       VARCHAR2(100)
    )
  ";
  unless ($rows = $dbh->do("$sql_statement")) {
    &programError(   "Could not create table TEST_DBI"
                   , "$sql_statement"
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    $dbh->rollback;
    &logoffOracle($dbh);
    exit;
  }

  print "      OK\n\n";

  # +----------------------------+
  # | INSERT INTO TABLE test_dbi |
  # +----------------------------+

  print "  (*) Insert into TEST_DBI ...\n";

  $sql_statement = "
    INSERT INTO test_dbi (
        test_dbi_intr_no
      , test_dbi_name
    ) VALUES (
        1000
      , 'Jeff Hunter'
    ) 
  ";

  unless ($rows1 = $dbh->do("$sql_statement")) {
    &programError(   "Could not do INSERT_TEST_DBI (Jeff) cursor"
                   , "$sql_statement"
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    $dbh->rollback;
    &logoffOracle($dbh);
    exit;
  }

  print "      $rows1 rows inserted.\n";

  $sql_statement = "
    INSERT INTO test_dbi (
        test_dbi_intr_no
      , test_dbi_name
    ) VALUES (
        1001
      , 'Melody Hunter'
    ) 
  ";

  unless ($rows2 = $dbh->do("$sql_statement")) {
    &programError(   "Could not do INSERT_TEST_DBI (Melody) cursor"
                   , "$sql_statement"
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    $dbh->rollback;
    &logoffOracle($dbh);
    exit;
  }

  print "      $rows2 rows inserted.\n";

  $sql_statement = "
    INSERT INTO test_dbi (
        test_dbi_intr_no
      , test_dbi_name
    ) VALUES (
        1002
      , 'Alex Hunter'
    ) 
  ";

  unless ($rows3 = $dbh->do("$sql_statement")) {
    &programError(   "Could not do INSERT_TEST_DBI (Alex) cursor"
                   , "$sql_statement"
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    $dbh->rollback;
    &logoffOracle($dbh);
    exit;
  }

  print "      $rows3 rows inserted.\n";

  unless ($dbh->commit) {
    &programError(   "Could not commit INSERT_TEST_DBI transaction"
                   , "$sql_statement"
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    $dbh->rollback;
    &logoffOracle($dbh);
    exit;
  }

  print "      OK\n\n";

  # +----------------------------+
  # | SELECT FROM TABLE test_dbi |
  # +----------------------------+

  print "  (*) Select from TEST_DBI ...\n";

  $sql_statement = "
    SELECT
        test_dbi_intr_no
      , test_dbi_name
    FROM
        test_dbi
  ";

  unless ($cursor = $dbh->prepare("$sql_statement")) {
    &programError(   "Could not prepare SELECT_TEST_DBI cursor"
                   , "$sql_statement"
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    $dbh->rollback;
    &logoffOracle($dbh);
    exit;
  }

  unless ($cursor->execute) {
   &programError(   "Could not execute SELECT_TEST_DBI cursor"
                  , "$sql_statement"
                  , "$DBI::errstr"
                  , "dba-mail"
                  , "dba-pager");
   $dbh->rollback;
   &logoffOracle($dbh);
   exit;
  }


  while ((   $test_dbi_intr_no
           , $test_dbi_name) = $cursor->fetchrow_array) {

    print "\n";
    print "        --> TEST_DBI_INTR_NO :  $test_dbi_intr_no\n";
    print "        --> TEST_DBI_NAME    :  $test_dbi_name\n";
    print "\n";

  }

  unless ($cursor->finish) {
   &programError(   "Could not finish SELECT_TEST_DBI cursor"
                  , "$sql_statement"
                  , "$DBI::errstr"
                  , "dba-mail"
                  , "dba-pager");
   $dbh->rollback;
   &logoffOracle($dbh);
   exit;
  }


  print "      OK\n\n";


  # +----------------------------+
  # | DELETE FROM TABLE test_dbi |
  # +----------------------------+

  print "  (*) Delete from TEST_DBI ...\n";

  $sql_statement = "
    DELETE FROM test_dbi
  ";

  unless ($rows4 = $dbh->do("$sql_statement")) {
    &programError(   "Could not do DELETE_TEST_DBI (All Names) cursor"
                   , "$sql_statement"
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    $dbh->rollback;
    &logoffOracle($dbh);
    exit;
  }

  print "      $rows4 rows deleted.\n";

  unless ($dbh->commit) {
    &programError(   "Could not commit DELETE_TEST_DBI transaction"
                   , "$sql_statement"
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    $dbh->rollback;
    &logoffOracle($dbh);
    exit;
  }

  print "      OK\n\n";


  # +---------------------+
  # | DROP TABLE test_dbi |
  # +---------------------+

  print "  (*) Drop table TEST_DBI ...\n";

  $sql_statement = "
    DROP TABLE test_dbi
  ";

  unless ($rows = $dbh->do("$sql_statement")) {
    &programError(   "Could not drop table TEST_DBI"
                   , "$sql_statement"
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    $dbh->rollback;
    &logoffOracle($dbh);
    exit;
  }

  print "      OK\n\n";


  # +-------------------+
  # | GET USER and DATE |
  # +-------------------+

  print "  (*) Select USER and SYSTEM ...\n";

  $sql_statement = "
    SELECT
        user
      , TO_CHAR(sysdate, 'DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')
    FROM
        dual
  ";

  unless ($cursor = $dbh->prepare("$sql_statement")) {
    &programError(   "Could not prepare SELECT_SINGLE cursor"
                   , "$sql_statement"
                   , "$DBI::errstr"
                   , "dba-mail"
                   , "dba-pager");
    $dbh->rollback;
    &logoffOracle($dbh);
    exit;
  }

  unless ($cursor->execute) {
   &programError(   "Could not execute SELECT_SINGLE cursor"
                  , "$sql_statement"
                  , "$DBI::errstr"
                  , "dba-mail"
                  , "dba-pager");
   $dbh->rollback;
   &logoffOracle($dbh);
   exit;
  }


  ($user, $sysdate) = $cursor->fetchrow_array;

  print "\n";
  print "        --> USER             :  $user\n";
  print "        --> SYSDATE          :  $sysdate\n";
  print "\n";

  unless ($cursor->finish) {
   &programError(   "Could not finish SELECT_SINGLE cursor"
                  , "$sql_statement"
                  , "$DBI::errstr"
                  , "dba-mail"
                  , "dba-pager");
   $dbh->rollback;
   &logoffOracle($dbh);
   exit;
  }

  print "      OK\n\n";

}


sub programError {

  local($message, $sql_statement, $ora_errstr, $email_who, $page_who) = @_;

  print "+--------------------------+\n";
  print "| SUB: programError        |\n";
  print "+--------------------------+\n";
  print "\n";

  unless($message) {$message = "No message provided from calling module.";}

  print "+-------------------------------------------------------+\n";
  print "| ******************* PROGRAM ERROR ******************* |\n";
  print "+-------------------------------------------------------+\n";
  print "\n";
  print "\n";
  print "Message:\n";
  print "--------------------------------------------------------\n";
  print "$message\n";
  print "\n";
  if ($sql_statement) {
    print "SQL:\n";
    print "--------------------------------------------------------\n";
    print "$sql_statement\n";
    print "\n";
  }

  if ($ora_errstr) {
    print "Oracle Error:\n";
    print "--------------------------------------------------------\n";
    print "$ora_errstr\n";
  }

  # +-------------------------------------+
  # | SEND THIS OUTPUT TO THE MAIL SYSTEM |
  # +-------------------------------------+

  if ($email_who) {

    $AUTO_MESSAGE = "\n";
    $AUTO_MESSAGE .= "+-----------------------------------------+\n";
    $AUTO_MESSAGE .= "| The following message was automatically |\n";
    $AUTO_MESSAGE .= "| genereated by the Sysmon System.        |\n";
    $AUTO_MESSAGE .= "+-----------------------------------------+\n";
    $AUTO_MESSAGE .= "\n";

    @EMAIL_ARRAY = split(/ /, $email_who);

    foreach (@EMAIL_ARRAY) {

      $TO = $_."\@your_company.com";
      $FROM_FULL = "\"Sysmon Admin\"";
      $FROM = "\"dba\"";
      $Subject = "Sysmon Mail Error";

      open (MAIL,"|/usr/lib/sendmail -f $FROM -F $FROM_FULL $TO");
      print MAIL "To: $TO\n";
      print MAIL "From: $FROM\n";
      print MAIL "Reply-To: $FROM\n";
      print MAIL "Subject: $Subject\n\n";

      print MAIL "$AUTO_MESSAGE";

      print MAIL "+-------------------------------------------------------+\n";
      print MAIL "| ******************* PROGRAM ERROR ******************* |\n";
      print MAIL "+-------------------------------------------------------+\n";
      print MAIL "\n";
      print MAIL "\n";
      print MAIL "Message:\n";
      print MAIL "--------------------------------------------------------\n";
      print MAIL "$message\n";
      print MAIL "\n";
      if ($sql_statement) {
        print MAIL "SQL:\n";
        print MAIL "$sql_statement\n";
        print MAIL "--------------------------------------------------------\n";
        print MAIL "\n";
      }

      if ($ora_errstr) {
        print MAIL "Oracle Error:\n";
        print MAIL "--------------------------------------------------------\n";
        print MAIL "$ora_errstr\n";
      }

      close MAIL;
    }
  }

  if ($page_who) {

    @PAGER_ARRAY = split(/ /, $page_who);

    foreach (@PAGER_ARRAY) {

      $TO = $_."\@your_company.com";
      $FROM_FULL = "\"Sysmon Admin\"";
      $FROM = "\"dba\"";
      $Subject = "Sysmon Program Error";

      open (MAIL,"|/usr/lib/sendmail -f $FROM -F $FROM_FULL $TO");
      print MAIL "To: $TO\n";
      print MAIL "From: $FROM\n";
      print MAIL "Reply-To: $FROM\n";
      print MAIL "Subject: $Subject\n\n";

      print MAIL "$message\n";
      close MAIL;
    }
  }

}



Troubleshooting

This section contains observations and troubleshooting techniques related to programming and running Perl with the DBD:Oracle driver.



About the Author

Jeffrey Hunter is an Oracle Certified Professional, Java Development Certified Professional, Author, and an Oracle ACE. Jeff currently works as a Senior Database Administrator for The DBA Zone, Inc. located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His work includes advanced performance tuning, Java and PL/SQL programming, developing high availability solutions, capacity planning, database security, and physical / logical database design in a UNIX / Linux server environment. Jeff's other interests include mathematical encryption theory, tutoring advanced mathematics, programming language processors (compilers and interpreters) in Java and C, LDAP, writing web-based database administration tools, and of course Linux. He has been a Sr. Database Administrator and Software Engineer for over 20 years and maintains his own website site at: http://www.iDevelopment.info. Jeff graduated from Stanislaus State University in Turlock, California, with a Bachelor's degree in Computer Science and Mathematics.



Copyright (c) 1998-2017 Jeffrey M. Hunter. All rights reserved.

All articles, scripts and material located at the Internet address of http://www.idevelopment.info is the copyright of Jeffrey M. Hunter and is protected under copyright laws of the United States. This document may not be hosted on any other site without my express, prior, written permission. Application to host any of the material elsewhere can be made by contacting me at jhunter@idevelopment.info.

I have made every effort and taken great care in making sure that the material included on my web site is technically accurate, but I disclaim any and all responsibility for any loss, damage or destruction of data or any other property which may arise from relying on it. I will in no case be liable for any monetary damages arising from such loss, damage or destruction.

Last modified on
Thursday, 18-Nov-2010 18:08:31 EST
Page Count: 62350